The karanga is a formal part of welcoming a manuhiri (guest) onto a Marae (meeting house). An intricate part of the karanga ceremony is based around the lifting of tapu (sacredness) and allows the manuhiri (guest) and tangata whenua (local people) to become one.
This is performed by the women folk, from both sides the tangata whenua (local people) & manuhiri (guests) replying & calling to each other whilst the guests are called onto the Marae (meeting house). The call between each group will assist the tangata whenua in understanding the intention of the guests visit.
The haka powhiri may be performed as part of the karanga process and is normally done when visiting tribes or dignitaries are welcome onto the Marae (meeting house). A chant and dance is performed by the tangata whenua (local people) during which the manuhiri (guests) are drawn onto the Marae.
The wero challenge is still widely utilised amongst many tribes in Aotearoa (New Zealand). The importance for the wero or challenge is to establish whether the visiting group is there as friend or foe. A young warrior of the Marae is sent out to perform the wero testing the visitors reaction and ready to react to any provocation by the visiting group.